No comments | Thursday, September 20, 2012
    Toy
    Crazy Frog started in Sweden when Erik Wernquist created a 3D computer animated creature called 'The Annoying Thing'. Crazy Frog was distributed as a mobile phone ringtone by Jamba! In 2004, earning more than 14 million Pounds worldwide. In 2005 it went to No.1 in the UK single charts. Crazy Frog products now include key rings, lunch boxes, T-shirts, backpacks, soft toys, desk Nodders, even air fresheners.

    Barbie Doll

    The first Barbie doll appeared in February 1959. It was made by Ruth and Elliot Handler, co-founders of American toy manufactures Mattel, and they named the doll after their daughter Barbara. The doll was dressed in a black and white striped swimsuit, with sunglasses, high heels and gold hoop earrings. In the first year a total of 351,000 Barbies were sold at $3 each. The doll went on to become one of the best selling toys of all time.

    Scrabble
    Scrabble was invented in the USA during the 1930s by an unemployed architect named Alfred Mosher Butts. First he called it Lexiko, then it and Criss-Cross, before hitting on the name Scrabble. Well over 100 million sets have been sold in more than 130 countries. The number of letters included vary according to the language. In Dutch, for example, there are 18 Es, 10 Ns and two Js. The Slovak version has 41 different letters- more than any other version.

    Monopoly

    Monopoly was invented in 1934 by an unemployed engineer called Charles Darrow, who lived in Philadelphia, USA. In his first version of the game he used street names but could not afford the fare. The game was so successful that Darrow became a millionaire and spent the rest of his life travelling and growing rare orchids. Monopoly was soon adapted for other countries, using street names from their main cities. The British version, for example, uses London place names and Mayfair is the most expensive street. There are also versions of Monopoly based on the popular TV series, such as The Simpsons. Parkers, the US manufacturers of the game, print more Monopoly money than US Treasury prints dollars.

    Computer games

    The first computer games were played on televisions and appeared in the 1970s. They were basic arcade games like Pong (1972), an electric table-tennis game, and Pac-Man (1980), in which yellow blob is steered round a maze, gobbling up everything in its path.

    As computer technology advanced games and consoles improved with better graphics, sound and choice of themes. Second generation 8-bit games had removable cartridges, while the fifth 32-bit and 64-bit generation games could be played in 3D. Sixth and seventh generation games are more realistic than ever before and can be played online with anyone around the world which is called as Multiplayer.


    Generation Popular consoles
    First Atari PONG (1975)
    Second Atari PONG (1977)
    Third Nintendo Entertainment System (1983),
    Nintendo Game Boy (1989)
    Fourth Sega MEgaDrive (1988), Super Nintendo (1990)
    Fifth Nintendo 64 (1986), Sony PlayStation (1994)
    Sixth Sega Dreamcast (1988), Sony PlayStation 2 (2000),
    Microsoft Xbox (2001)
    Seventh Xbox 360 (2005), PlayStation 3 (2006),
    Nintendo Revolution (2006)

    Valuable Toys
    Some wealthy collectors prize rare toys, especially those that are in good condition- in their original box, and never played with. These are just some of the toys that may have cost very little when they were made, but now sell for high prices.
    • A Kammer and Reinhardt doll was sold at Sotheby's London, On 8 February 1994 for $277,981.
    • At 1906 train set made by German toymaker Marklin was sold at Christie's, London, in 2001 for $165,290.
    • A tinplate clockwork motorcycle with Mickey Mouse and Minnie from about 1930, was sold at Christie's London, in 1997 for $83,650.
    • A Machine Man robot, made by Japanese manufacturer Masudaya in about 1955, sold at Sotheby's, New York, in 1996 for $42,550.
    • Dingley Hall, a doll's house dating from 1877, was sold at Christie's, London, in 2003 for $165,290.
    • Titania's Palace, a doll's house with 2,000 times of furniture, was sold at Christie's, London, in 1978 for $258,728
    • A black mohair Steiff teddy bear, made in about 1912, was sold at Christie's, London, in 2000 for $132,157. It was one of only 494 black Steiff bears made as a mark of respect after the sinking of the Titanic. They are known as "mourning teddies". 
    No comments | Wednesday, September 05, 2012
    Time
    Different units of time:
    Below are some of the words used to define units of time:
    Chronon is one-billionth of a trillionth of a second (the time of a photon would take to cross the width of 1 electron at the speed of light).

    femtosecond is 0.000000000000001 of a second

    Picosecond is measured as one-trillionth of a second

    Nanosecond is one-millionth of a second

    A millisecond is one- thousandth (0.001) of a second: the blink of an takes 50-80 milliseconds

    centisecond is one-hundredth (0.01) of a second

    Second is 1/60 of a minute

    1 minute = 60 seconds

    1 hour = 60 minutes

    Day- Sunrise to sunset, or midnight to midnight or sunset to sunset= 24 hours

    Week = seven days, also known as seven nights or sennight in Shakespearean times

    Fortnight = two weeks (from the old English for 14 nights)

    Month- full Moon to full Moon, 1/12 of a year, four weeks or 28,29,30 or 31 days depending on the month

    bimester - two months

    trimester - a period of 3 months

    year - 365 days, 12 months or 52 weeks

    Solar day - The time it takes for a place on the Earth directly facing the Sun to make one revolution and return to the same position (approx. 23 hours 56 minutes)

    Solar year- The time taken for the Earth to make a complete revolution around the Sun equal to 362.24219 solar days or 365 days 5 hours 48 minutes 45.51 seconds, also called a astronomical or tropical year.

    Leap year= 366 days

    decade= 10 years, also known as decennium

    century= 100 years

    millennium= 1,000 years also called as chiliad

    bimillennium= 2,000 years

    Era is a period of time measured from some important event

    eon or aeon is a long period of time, usually thousands of years, it is one-billion year in geology and astronomy

    epoch is a very long period of time or a geological era.


    Leap seconds:
    The rotation of the Earth is slowing down which means that a solar day (the time it takes the Earth to make one complete revolution) and the time shown by atomic clocks would constantly diverge. This problem has been solved by adding leap seconds. Since 1072, there have been 22 leap seconds. The last one was added on 31 December 2005, which delayed New Year's day 2006 by one second.

    Naming the days of the week:
    The days of the week are called after planets and other objects saw in the sky by the Ancient Babylonians, the the Romans.

    Monday is the Moon's day
    Tuesday is Tiu's day, Mars or the Roman god of war adopted as the great warrior Tiw or Tiu in Scandinavian mythology.
    Wednesday is Woden's day
    Thursday is Thor's day, Thor was the god of Thunder
    Friday is Freyja's day like Venus. Frigg or Freyja was the goddess of love.
    Saturday is Saturn's day
    Sunday is the Sun's day

    Calendar:
    The Gregorian Calendar is used by most of the world's countries and culture, but some base their calendars on more ancient systems. An alternative calendar has adopted by other countries at some point in their history.

    3761 BC Jewish calendar starts
    2637 BC Original Chinese calendar starts
    45 BC Roman Empire adopted Julian Calendar
    0 Christian Calendar starts
    79 Hindu Calendar starts
    597 In Britain Julian calendar adopted
    622 Islamic calendar starts
    1582 Gregorian calendar introduced in Catholic countries
    1752 Julian calendar abandoned, Gregorian calendar
    adopted in Britain and its colonies, including
    America
    1873 Gregorian calendar adopts by Japan
    1949 Gregorian calendar adopts by China

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