No comments | Wednesday, December 18, 2013

  1. 100 Million people come to India's Kumbh Mela festival, the world's largest human gathering. 
  2. India's Hindu calendar has 6 seasons: Spring, Monsoon, Winter, Summer, Prevernal and Spring.
  3. It's illegal to take Indian currency(Rupees) out of India. 
  4. Breathing the air in Mumbai, India, for just one day is equivalent to smoking 100 cigarettes.
  5. A man married a dog in India as Atonement.
  6. Police officers in one state in India are given a slight pay upgrade for having a moustache.
  7. India is the world's largest Democracy, with 1.2 Billion people.
  8. An Indian man claims he hasn't eaten or drunk for 70 years. After many tests, doctors still don't know how it is possible.
  9. The world's largest family lives together in India: A man with 39 wives and 94 children.
  10. India is the 7th largest country in the world and one of the most old civilizations.
  11. Martial arts were first created in India and later spread to Asia by Buddhist missionaries.
  12. Yoga has its origin in India and has existed over 5,000 years.
  13. India has the largest number of post offices in the world.
  14. Algebra, Calculus and Trigonometry are studies originated in India.
  15. India never invaded any country in its last 100000 years of history.
No comments | Sunday, October 27, 2013
tv milestones1822
18 October, BBC (British Broadcasting Company) founded

First transmissions of Scottish inventor John Logie Baird's experimental mechanical television system and, in the USA, Philo T. Farnsworth's electronic TV system

22 November, BBC opens the world's first regular high-definition television service, from Alexandra Palace, London

21 June, Wimbledon Tennis Championships first broadcast

30 April, television coverage of the FA Cup Final
31 May, first BBC TV panel game, Spelling Bee
21 September in the UK, News Map

1 September, BBC television service is suspended throughout World War II
30 April, Franklin D. Roosevelt is the first president to appear on TV, opening the World's Fair in the New York
10 June, the first king and queen Elizabeth seen visiting the World's Fair

1 July, the first ever TV commercial, for a Bulova clock, is broadcast by WNBT New York, during a game between the Brooklyn Dodgers and the Philadelphia Philies

1 June, first TV licences are issued in the UK (cost 2 pounds)
7 June, BBC television broadcasts resume
7 July, first British children's TV programme, For the children, is broadcast

21 February, America's first regular daytime serial, or soap opera, A Woman to Remember, begin its run

29 July, London Olympic Games is televised

24 December, in the USA Amahl and The Night Visitors becomes the world's first commercial colour broadcast

2 June, the coronation of Queen Elizabeth II is watched live by about 20 million people in Britain and as many as 200 million worldwide
11 November, current affairs programme Panorama is launched; goes on to become the longest-running programme on British TV

1 January, the Tournament of Roses parade at Pasadena, California, USA, becomes the first programme ever broadcast coast-to-coast
11 January, first TV weather forecast in the UK, by George Cowling
9 April, Britain's first TV soap opera, The Grove Family

22 September, first TV advert in the UK, for Gibbs SR toothpaste

13 May, first schools programmes broadcast in the UK
25 December, the Queen's first annual TV Christmas message broadcast

16 October, Blue Peter starts, the longest-running children's programme

21 July, first live broadcasts from the Moon (Apollo XI)
15 November, BBC1 and ITV start broadcasting in colour

1 August, MTV launched; The Buggle's Video Killed the Radio Star the first music video to be broadcast

5 February, Sky begins satellite broadcasting in the UK

9 November, BBC1 begins broadcasting 24 hours a day, seven days a week (previously, TV closed down at night)

18 July, the UK launch of the first series of Big Brother starts a fashion for reality TV

High Definition television (HDTV) becomes available in the UK and other countries
No comments | Wednesday, October 23, 2013

  1.  The practice of burying the dead may date back  350,000 years.
  2.  More people commit suicide in New York city than  are  murdered.
  3.  All about 100 billion people have died in All Human  History.
  4.  About 153,000 people will die on your birthday. 
  5.  Left-handers die 3 years earlier than right-handed  people.
  6.  Doctors sloppy handwriting kills more than 7,000  people annually. 
  7.  When a person dies, his sense of hearing is the last  to go.
  8.  Every hour, at least 1 person is killed by a drunk  driver  in the U.S.
  9.  Within three days of death , the Enzymes that once  digested your dinner begin to eat you.
  10.  Mount Everest has about 200 dead bodies on it, which are now landmarks on the way to  the top.
  11.  You are more likely to die from a falling coconut than from a shark attack. 
  12.  Every 40 seconds someone commits suicide.
  13.  Italian serial killer Leonarda Cianciulli was famous for turning victims into tea cakes and  serving  them  to guests.
  14.  Sharks kill 12 people per year, while people kill 11,417 sharks per hour. 
  15.  35 million of your cells die every minute. 
  16.  Every 90 seconds, one woman dies during pregnancy or childbirth.
  17.  80% of all SOVIET males born in 1923 died in world war II.
  18.  The creator of the pringles packaging had his ashes stored in a pringles can after he  died.
  19.  Greek philospher  Chrysippus is said to have died of laughter after getting his donkey  drunk,  trying to eat figs. 
  20.  You are more likely to die slipping in the bathtub, getting struck by lightning, or drowning  in the  bathtub, than from terrorism.
No comments | Saturday, September 14, 2013
educate yourself
Missed out on subjects at school? Interested in learning something new? The internet is opening up education to everyone, and now you can be taught by the best educators from the best universities in the world, free. Most won't get you an actual degree, but they will expand your brain. Some ways to access this form of education are:

Khan Academy (
Library of 4100 educational videos viewed over 250 million times. 

Coursera (
Online degrees and lectures from the best professors worldwide. 

Download or create lectures for iPod, iPhone or iPad.

TED Talks (
Videos of more than 1400 talks from the world's greatest thinkers.

OpenCourseWare Consortium (
Video courses and lectures from top universities. 

Textbook Revolution (
Free textbooks on the net.

Wikiversity (
Open educational resources and collaborative learning communities from the Wikimedia Foundation. 
No comments | Thursday, September 12, 2013

  •  Kids sued their mother for sending birthday cards without  gifts.
  •  A woman disagreed with a store over an 80-cent refund  and then sued for $5 million.
  •  A mother filed suit against an exclusive preschool over her child's college prospects.
  •  A woman sued a theatre over a movie trailer, saying there wasn't enough driving in  Drive.
  •  A man illegally brought a gun into a bar, got injured in a fight, and then sued the bar for  not searching  him for a weapon. 
  •  A convict sued a couple he had kidnapped for not helping him evade police. 
  •  A mother sued a fast-food eatery, arguing that the restaurants's video games  encouraged gambling in  children. 
Academic Idiocy:
Nobody grudges scientific inquiry and research. you should be allowed to study or do a PhD in anything, right? So what's your opinion about US government funding for these?
  •  $113,227 to the international Center for the History of Electronic Games for video game  preservation. 
  •  $492,005 to researchers at Wellesely College to answer the question, Do you trust your  Twitter feed?
  •  $606,000 to Columbia University to study online dating. 
  •  $55,382 to a Virginia Commonwealth University researcher towards a study on  hookah  smoking by jordanian students.
  •  $198,195 to University of California, Riverside, to study whether happy or unhappy  people spend more time on social media.
  •  $592,527 to primate researchers to study in part what feces-throwing among chimps  reveals about communication skills. 
  •  $338,998, granted by the National Science Foundation, to study women, Weaving and  Wool in Iceland, in the years AD 874 to 1800. 

No comments | Monday, August 12, 2013
First ballet
Margot Fonteyn
[img src:
In the late 16th century, performances that included dancing, music and acting were given at the French court of Henri II and Catherine de Medici. The Ballet Comique de La Reine (1581) was the first recorded.

First ballet in the USA
On 7 February 1827 Francisquy Hutin performed a ballet in the play The Deserter at the Bowery Theatre, New York. The women in the audience were so shocked by it that they fled from the theatre.  

First professional ballerina
On 21 January 1681 Mademoiselle de La Fontaine appeared in Jean Baptiste Lully's The Triumph of Love at the Paris Opera. 

First tutu/first on points
Ballerina Maria Taglioni (1804-84) wore a muslin dress known as a tutu when she danced in La Sylphide at the Paris Opera on 12 March 1832. The dress allowed more freedom of movement so became popular in classical ballet. In the same baller she danced on points without support- the first time any dancer had done so.

Most curtain calls for a ballet performance
In October 1964 Margot Fonteyn and Rudolf Nureyev received 89 curtain calls after their performance in Swan Lake at the Staatsoper, in Vienna, Austria.

Most pirouettes
Delia Gray (15) performed 166 consecutive turns at The Playhouse, Harlow, Essex, UK on 2 June 1991.

2 comments | Tuesday, July 02, 2013
One afternoon in 1971, IBM engineer George Laurer confessed to his boss, "I didn't do what you asked." Laurer, who lived in Raleigh, North Carolina, USA had been instructed to design a code that could be printed on food labels and that would be compatible with the scanners then in development with the scanners then in development for supermarket checkout counters. He was told to model it on the bull's-eye-shaped optical scanning code designed in the 1940s by N. Joseph Woodland. But Laurer saw a problem with the shape. "When you run a circle through a high-speed press, there are parts that are going to get smeared," he says, "so I came up with my own code." His system,  pattern of stripes, would be readable even if it was poorly printed.
This pattern, originally proposed by IBM, won.
It was later modified into the UPC we use today.
That pattern became the basis for the Universal Product Code(UPC), which was adopted by a consortium of grocery companies in 1973, when cashiers were still punching in all prices by hand. Within a decade, the UPC and optical scanners brought supermarkets into the digital age. Now an employee could log a cereal box with a flick of the wrist. "When people find out that I invented the UPC, they think I'm rich," Laurer says. But he received no royalties for this invention, and IBM did not patent it. 
Code contestants-
In the early 1970s, companies competed to design a universal code for products. Here, finalists in the product code judging:
barcode contest
No comments | Monday, June 17, 2013
Road disasters
Many people are killed and injured on the roads- more than 40,000 a year in the USA - but accidents involving more than a few drivers or pedestrians are rare. 
Worst road disaster
On 3 November 1982 a petrol tanker collided with a Soviet army truck and exploded in the 2.7km Salang Tunnel in Afghanistan. At least 2,000 and perhaps as many as 3,000 people died as a result of the explosion, fire and fumes. 
US road disaster
The worst US road disaster took place on 15 December 1967. The Silver Bridge across the Ohio River from Kanauga, Ohio to Point Pleasant, West Virginia, collapsed during heavy pre-Christmas rush hour traffic and about 60 vehicles plunged into the river.
British road accident
On 27 May 1975 a coach crashed near Grassington, North Yorkshire, killing 33.

Air disaster
Two hijacked planes crash into the
World Trade Center, New York
Air disasters
Worst ever
The two terrorist attacks on the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center, New York, on 11 September 2001, killed all the passengers and crew on both hijacked planes (92 on one and 65 on the other). More than 2,000 people also died in the buildings. 
On the ground
On 27 March 1977, two Boeing 747s collided and caught fore on the runway of Los Rodeos airport in Tenerife in the Canary Islands. The aircraft were carrying 614 passengers and 30 crew between them. A total of 61 people managed to escape. 
Single-aircraft disaster
On 12 August 1985 a JAL Boeing 747 on an internal flight from Tokyo to Osaka crashed, killing 520. Four passengers survived. 
Mid-air collision
At Charkhi Dadri, India, on 12 November 1996, a Saudi Airways Boeing 747 collided with a Kazakh Airlines Ilyushin IL-76 cargo aircraft. A total of 349 people died. 

Rail disasters
Rail travel is one of the safest ways of journeying from place to place, taking into account the large numbers of passengers carried and distances travelled. But there have been accidents. One of the earliest rail disasters was at Versailles, France. It happened on 8 May 1842, when the Versailles to Paris train crashed. 
World's worst
On 6 June 1981 a train plunged off a bridge crossing the Bagmati River, India. The driver may have had  to brake sharply to avoid hitting a sacred crow. The train was overcrowded and more than 800 people may have died. 
On 22 May 1915 a troop train crashed head-on into another at Quintinshill near Gretna Green, Scotland. The wreckage was then struck by an express. The crashes and fire that followed left 227 dead and 246 injured. 
Two USA accidents both resulted in 101 deaths. On 10 August 1887 a bridge at Chatsworth, Illinois caught fore and collapsed as a train was passing over. In the crash, 81 people were killed immediately and a further 20 died later. As many as 372 were injured. The second accident happened on 9 July 1918 at Nashville, Tennessee, when two trains collided head-on. 
On 28 October 1995, at Baku, Azerbaijan, an underground train caught fire one saturday evening. The accident killed more than  300 people. 
American underground
America's worst subway accident was on 1 November 1918 at Brooklyn, New York. A train was derailed in the Malbone Street tunnel, leaving 97 dead. 
British underground
Britain's worst tube disaster took place on 8 March 1943 at Bethnal Green, London. About 173 people who were trying to enter the underground station during an air raid were killed in the crush.
No comments | Monday, June 10, 2013
Tupperware brand products made their debut in 1946. Earl Silas Tupper, an imaginative chemist, worked with industrial plastics. He saw the potential of some materials to become perfect kitchen solutions for modern homes and soon he invented bowls equipped with airtight seals which were modern in shape  and also kept food fresh for longer.
Earl Silas Tupper (1907-83)
  •  Tupperware gets its name from its inventor Earl Silas Tupper.
  •  Tupperware seals actually expel air keeping foods fresh for longer.
  •  There is a Tupperware party being hosted every 2.5 seconds somewhere in the world.
  •  Tupperware is one of Fortune Magazine's most admired companies in the world, five  times in a row. Tupperware in India too is a recipient of Masterbrand, Superbrand and Powerbrand Recognitions consistently over the years. 
  •  Over 100 Tupperware items from the period 1946 to 1958 are housed in the Smithsonian Institution in Washington and the National Museum of American history.
  •  Tupperware is a zero investment business opportunity.
  •  Tupperware is identified as one of the 10 greatest inventions of the 20th Century by the Guinness Book of World Records.
  •  Wonderlier Bowls by Earl Tupper was the first product inspired by the paint can seal machine.

Tupperware in India and Brand values:
Tupperware entered India in 1996 and has been growing exponentially ever since. The brand has not only brought world class kitchen solutions to India, but it has also launched several India-specific products to cater to the unique needs of the Indian kitchen. These products are designed to preserve food for longer and save space for smaller urban kitchens. 

Tupperware markets and distributes its ingenious kitchen solutions through a network of independent women consultants who run it as their own business. The Tupperware business opportunity empowers women by opening up doors to financial independence for them across region, religions and economic strata. This has generated much love for the brand. The recognition of this comes from the fact that Tupperware has been acknowledged by Fortune Magazine as one of 'The Most Admired Companies of the world' for five years in a row. 

In 2012, Tupperware launched a campaign titled 'She Can, You Can.' This campaign upheld the examples of women achievers in the field of social entrepreneurship. It was designed to inspire women and give them the confidence to begin their own ventures. This campaign still runs strong within the Tupperware sales force and continues to inspire more women to achieve their full potential. 

As it stands today, Tupperware is positioned as the provider of smart kitchen solutions that market its products directly to consumers through a network of independent women consultants who organize fun parties to demonstrate the products and share interesting kitchen tips. 

5 comments | Sunday, June 02, 2013
Double bass
A double bass 4.26m long and weighing 590kg was built by Arthur K. Ferris of Ironia, New Jersey, USA in 1924.
The University of Texas Longhorn Band has a drum nicknamed Big Bertha which is 7.6m in circumference.
musical instrumentsA giant version of a Gibson guitar 11.63m long was made in 1991 by students at Shakamak High School, Jasonville, Indiana, USA. Large stringed instruments that are bigger than the span of human bands are difficult or even impossible to play.
The world's loudest instrument is the Auditorium Organ in Atlantic City, USA. It was built in 1930 at a cost of $500,000 has more than 32,000 pipes and is powered by a 365 horsepower blower.
The second-largest organ is the pipe organ built in 1911 in the Wanamaker Department Store, Philadelphia, USA.
The world's largest cathedral organ was built in St Stephen's Cathedral, Passau, Germany in 1028. It has 17,774 pipes.
In 1935 in  London Charles H. Challen built a piano which is probably the largest in the world. It weighs 1.25 tonnes and is 3.55m long.
One of the lightest pianos ever made was a baby grand weighing just 180kg. It was made mostly of aluminium covered in yellow pigskin. It was constructed by the Bluthner company of Germany for the airship Hindenburg, and was destroyed when the airship exploded in1937.
In 1896 John Philip Sousa, who is the American inventor of the sousaphone, played a 2.28m tuba on a world tour. This is the largest brass instrument ever made and had 11.8m of tubing.

Large orchestras:

  •  In 1872 Austrian composer Johann Strauss conducted an orchestra of 987 (including 400 first violinists) and a choir of 20,000. The performance was in Boston (USA).
  •  In 1958, the Norwegian National Meeting of school Bands assembled 12,600 players at Trondheim, Norway.
  •  A total of 6,452 musicians from the Vancouver Symphony Orchestra and Canadian music students played together in Vancouver, Canada on 15 May 2000.
  •  An ensemble of 1,013 cellists played on 29 November 1988 in Kobe, Japan.
  •  On 14 July 1999 Piers Adams conducted 710 recorder players performing "Roaring Rag" by  Beverley Wragg at Cressing Temple Barn, Essex, UK.
No comments | Friday, May 03, 2013
1865 Jules Verne Predicted the Moon Landing
Verne's perscient novels from the Earth to the Moon and Around the Moon featured a spaceship called the Columbiad, which blasted off from a launchpad in Florida and carried three astronauts into space. After impressively completing a trip to the moon, the ship crash-landed in the Pacific Ocean. Sound familiar? That's because it almost precisely describes the first US moon mission, Apollo 8, which took place more than 100 years later, in December 1968. Interestingly, NASA named its Apollo 11 command module the Columbia, inspired by Verne's famous fictional vessel.

1898 Mark Twain Predicted the Internet
The Sardonic scribe forecast the internet a century before its birth. In this short story "From the 'London Times' of 1904," Twain described an invention based on the Telectroscope, a never-produced 19th century device that was intended to use an enormous network of phone lines to connect the world.

1953 Ray Bradbury Predicted Flat-Screen TVs
In his novel Fahrenheit 451, the science-fiction master writes that members of his futuristic society are obsessed with large, flat-screen televisions (which didn't hit the market until 1997): "How long you figure before was save up and get the fourth wall torn out and a fourth-wall TV put in? It's only two thousand dollars," says character Mildred to her husband. Incidentally, Bradbury wasn't too far off on the price tag either.

1966 Star Trek Predicted Bluetooth
Crew members of the starship Enterprise were the first to use a Bluetooth-like device, a hands free communication tool that wouldn't be created until 1994, when it paved the way for mobile phones. Thankfully, the crew was exempt from roaming fees. 

1968 James Berry Predicted Online Shopping
This sci-fi writer described click-and-buy home shopping in the November 1968 issue of Mechanix Illustrated. "Instead of being jostled by crowds, shoppers electronically browse through the merchandise of any number of stores," he speculated about today's consumer trend, which debuted in 1995.

1990 Total Recall Predicted Full-Body Scanners
The (US) Transportation Security Administration captured headlines in 2010 with airports controversial use of full-body scanners which are eerily similar to the one that sees through Arnold Schwarzenegger's skin in this futuristic 1990 flick.

1991 Francis Ford Coppola Predicted YouTube
In an interview for the documentary Hearts of Darkness: A Filmmaker's Apocalypse, the director says, "Suddenly, one day some little girl in Ohio is gonna be the new Mozart and make a beautiful film with her father's little camera-corder and for once, this whole professionalism about movies will be destroyed, forever and it will really become an art form." YouTube arrived 14 years later.

1995 The Simpsons Predicted a Food-Processing Trend
Soya food sales quintupled between 1996 and 2011. But who could have known about their jump in popularity in 1995? In the sixth season of The Simpsons, an episode called "Lisa's Wedding" flash-forwards to the far-off year of 2010, where no home could be complete without satellite dishes, motion-controlled video games and stacks of soya snacks.

They got it wrong (or are still to arrive in the future?)
A shortened workday
Prediction: "The average work day is about four hours. But the extra time isn't totally free. A jobholder's spare time is used in keeping up with new developments- on the average, about two hours of home study a day."
Reality: The average workday is eight hours. And many employees work after hours. And many employees work after hours. Worse, many employees regulary check their e-mail and do work while on vacation.

Climate controlled cities
Prediction: "You whiz past a string of cities, many of them that keep them covered by the keepered by the new domes that keep them eventually climatized year-round.
Reality: Global warming has caused the Earth's temperature and sea levels to rise, resulting in extreme weather conditions and more severe storms. Dome-closed cities? Let's hope they're on the horizon.

Automated Doctors' visits
Prediction: "Medical examinations are a matter of sitting in a diagnostic chair for a minute or two, then receiving a full health report."
Reality: "We wish it were that easy. Waiting times at the clinic can be frustratingly long- even longer at public hospitals. And exam time can be added to that.

[Source: Reader's Digest]
No comments | Thursday, May 02, 2013
First printed books
Books were printed in China in the 8th Century using woodblocks, and in 14th-century China and Korea using movable type.
First books printed in English
In 1474 William Caxton printed the first book in English, Recuyell of the Historyes of Troye. It was printed in Bruges, Flanders. Chaucer's Canterbury Tales was probably the first book in English to be printed in England, in about 1477.
First books printed in America
Massachusetts Bay colony: The Oath of a Free-Man (1638) and An Almanack for the Year of Our Lord (1639) are the first two books known to have been printed in the new American colonies.
Longest novel
A science-fiction novel by French writer Georges-Jean Arnaud, La Compagne des Glaces (1980-92) runs to 62 volumes and has about 11,000 pages.
First sequel
Daniel Defoe wrote The Farther Adventures of Robinson Crusoe in 1719, after the success of Robinson Crusoe earlier that year.
First American novel
The power of sympathy (1789) was the first novel published in America. It was published anonymously, but is believed to have been written by William Hill Brown.
First detective story
first booksMurders in the Rue Morgue, by American author Edgar Allan Poe, was first published in Grahame's Magazine in 1841.
Smallest book
This was produced by a German typographer Josua Rechert and called The World's Smallest Book. It measures 2.4 x 2.9mm - the size of a match head.
Largest book
The largest ever book was published in 2003. It is a collection of photographs called Bhutan: A Visual Odyssey Across the Kingdom. When opened out it measures 2.1 x 1.5m - almost the size of a table-tennis. It costs $10,000 a copy.
Electronic books
Electronic books, or ebooks, have been around for over 20 years. The earliest ones could not store much information and had tiny screens that were difficult to read, such as an electronic Bible (1991) that could display four lines at a time. The latest electronic books are small, light and hold huge volumes of data that can be downloaded from the Internet.

Largest libraries:
A library is a collection of books and other printed material. The word library can also be used to describe the building where a collection of books is kept, as well as manuscripts, maps, periodicals and photographs. Below are the world's largest libraries, each containing over 10 million books.
Library Founded Location Books
Library of Congress 1800 Washington DC, USA 29,000,000
British Library* 1753 London, UK 18,000,000
Russian State Library 1862 Moscow, Russia 17,000,000
Bibliotheque Nationale 1461 Paris, France 14,000,000
Harvard University Library   1636 Cambridge, Massachusetts,
Deutsche Bibliothek 1990 Frankfurt, Germany 11,300,000
* Founded as part of the British Museum, 1753: 
became independent in 1973
No comments | Friday, April 19, 2013
Casts of thousands:
About 20,000 of the extras in Gandhi were volunteers, but another 94,560 were paid a small fee. They appeared in the scene showing Gandhi's funeral, which lasted just two minutes and five seconds after editing. In Around the World in 80 Days (1956), there were animal extras as well as people- 3,800 sheep, 2,448 buffalos, 15 elephants, 950 donkeys, 6 skunks, 800 horses, 512 monkeys, 17 bulls, and 4 ostriches. In recent films, such as the Lord of the Rings trilogy, scenes featuring thousands of people were computer-generated, so the days of films with casts of thousands may be over.
Film/Country/Year  Extras
Gandhi, UK, 1982   294,560
Kolberg, Germany, 1945   187,000
Monster Wangmagwi, Sount Korea, 1967   157,000
War and Peace, USSR, 1968   120,000
Ilya Muromets, USSR, 1956   106,000
Dun-Huang (Ton ko), Japan, 1988   100,000
Razboiul Independentei (The War of Independence),
Romania, 1912
Around the World in 80 Days, USA, 1956     68,894
Intolerance, USA, 1916     60,000
Dny Zrady (Days of Betrayal), Czechoslovakia, 1973     60,000

What does what in a film?
Person What they do
Director The director controls everything, gives order to
the cast and crew and makes sure that the script
is followed
Producer(s) There can be more than one prodicer, who is
responsible for raising the money to make the
film and for other important activities, such
as casting and controlling the costs.
Screenplay writer The person who writes the script. This gives
the actors and actresses their lines and expllains
how the action takes place.
Cast The actors and actresses who appear in the film.
Extras The people who appear in crowd scenes but do not
have sneaking parts.
Animatronic engineer    The technician responsible for making the robotic 
creatures used in science-fiction and fantasy film.
Art director The art director coordinates the costumes, sets
and make-up to set the overall style of the film.
Best boy The deputy electrician, assistant to the gaffer.
Casting director The person who chooses the actor for each
role in the film.
Caterer The caterer supplies meals so that the cast and
crew can work all day.
Cinematographer The person who directs the lighting and films
the action, originally called the cameraman.
Clapper loader Details of each are written on a special
board called a clapper board. The clapper
loader snaps it shut in front of the camera
is filming begins to record what is being filmed
Composer The composer writes the music or adapts an
existing score as a backing track to the film.
Costume designer The costume designer is responsible for designing
and supplying of film to create the final version.
Editor The editor cuts and connects the best versions of
each section of film to create the final version.
Gaffer The chief electrician, who is responsible for lightning
the set. The word may comee from slang for grandfather- a
senior person respected by everyone. Gaffer tape is the
heavy-duty tape used on sets to secure cables and almost
everything else.
Key grip A grip is responsible for moving the sets and
for laying the tracks on which the camera
runs. The key grip is in charge of all other grips.
Make-up artist He or she applies the cosmetics which alter or
improve an actor's looks under the studio lights.
Sound engineer This engineer makes sure that the actor's dialogue
and all other sounds heard on the film are properly
recorded and synchronized with the action.
This person is responsible for creating spectacular
scnes through a mixture of photographic,
mechanical and computer methods.
Stunt man/Woman Specialists who perform the actions that are too
difficult or dangerous for an actor. Stunt doubles
are stunt men or women made up to look like
the actors so it looks as though the actors have
performed a feat themselves.
Wardrobe mistress The wardrobe mistress (or master) is in charge
of the costumes, making sure they fit, are in
good condition and available when they are needed
for a scene.
No comments | Wednesday, April 17, 2013
The first balloons worked on the principle that when air is heated, it rises. They were filled with hot air by burning things under them, such as paper, straw and wool and even old shoes and rotten meat. But the balloons often caught fire the once the air cooled, they quickly came down. Soon after the first hot-air flights, people realized that the gas hydrogen could be instead. Hydrogen is the lightest of all elements- almost 15 times lighter than air. Gas balloon can also be filled with helium, which is not as light as hydrogen but does not catch fire so easily. Most balloons today use hot air made by burning propane gas. This can be carried in cylinders, so is comparatively safe.

The first hot-air balloon flight-
The first hot-air balloon flight
The Montgolfier brothers, Joseph and Etienne, tested their first unmanned hot-air balloon in the French town of Annonay on 5 June 1783. On 21 November 1783, Francois Laurent, Marquis d'Arlandes and Jean- Francois Pilatre de Rozier took off from the Bois de Boulogne, Paris in a Montgolfier hot-air balloon. During this first ever manned flight they travelled about 9km in 23 minutes.

First hydrogen balloon flight-
On 1 December 1783, Jacques Alexandre Cesar Charles and Nicholas-Louis Robert made the first flight in a hydrogen balloon. They took off from the Tuileries, Paris watched by a crowd of 400,000 and travelled 43km north to Nesle in about two hours. Charles then took off again alone, so becoming the first ever solo pilot.

First British flight-
On 27 August 1784 James Tytler,a doctor and newspaper editor, took off in a home-made balloon from comely Gardens, Edinburgh. He reached an altitude of 107m in a 0.8km hop.

First Channel crossing-
On 7 January 1785 Jean-Pierre Blanchard made the first Channel crossing in a balloon with Dr John Jeffries (the first American to fly). They also carried the first airmail letter. As they lost height, they had to reduce weight, so they threw almost everything overboard- including their clothes.

First flight in the USA-
On 9 January 1793 in Philadelphia, Blanchard made the first balloon flight in America. He took a small black dog with him as a passenger. The flight was watched by George Washington, who gave Blanchard a passport permitting his flight, which was the first pilot's licence and America's first airmail document.

First non-stop solo flight-
US millionaire and adventurer Steve Fossett made the first non-stop solo and fastest round the world balloon flight, 19 June-3 July 2002.