No comments | Friday, January 11, 2013
Soccer timeline

500 BC Football (tsu chu, meaning to kick a ball) played in China.
1314 First reference to football in England when Edward II prohibited the 
game because "too many people were bustling over footballs 
on London streets."
1848 The first rules of football drawn up at Cambridge University
1852 First inter-school football match, Westminster V Harrow.
1855 Sheffield football club, the oldest still in existence, formed.
1862 Notts County, the oldest current League club, formed.
1863 Football Association (FA) formed.
1870 First international match, England v Scotland, played at Kennington Oval.
1871 FA cup launched
1872 Corner kick introduced.
1873 Scottish FA formed; Scottish Cup started.
1874 Shin pads first worn.
1875 The cross bar replaced a tape across the top of the goals.
1876 Welsh FA formed
1878 Irish (now northern Ireland) FA formed
1878 Referee's whistle first used.
1885 Professional football legalized.
1888 Football league formed.
1889 The term "soccer" first used. May be an abbrevation of association 
football- the Football Association was formed to standardize the 
rules of the game.
1890 Scottish league formed
1891 Goal nets first used.
1891 Linesmen (now assistant referees) replace umpires.
1891 Penalty kick adopted by the FA.
1904 FIFA formed in Paris; first international match outside Britain- 
Belgium v France played near Brussels.
1907 Professional Footballer's Association (PFA)
formed (as the Football Players and Trainers Union.)
1921 FA of Ireland (Republic of Ireland) formed.
1923 First Wembley Cup Final (Bolton v West Ham).
1928 Players' numbers introduced.
1930 First world cup in Uruguay.
1932 Substitutes formally agreed by FIFA.
1950 England's First World Cup (lost 1-0 to USA).
1954 Union of European Football Association (UEFA) formed.
1955 European cup started.
1960 Football league cup started.
1965 Football league agrees use of substitutes.
1968 Red cards introduced (at the Mexico Olympic games)
1975 Scottish Premier Division (now Premier League) formed.
1981 Football League changed the number of points for a win two to three.
1982 Professional foul rule introduced.
1992 FA Premier League formed.
1993 Champions' League replaces the European Cup.
2004 Greece are surprise winners of the European Championship.
No comments | Thursday, January 03, 2013
New York's tallest building is the Empire State Building, which stands on Fifth Avenue, New York, between 33rd Street and 34th Street. It was built on the site of the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel and took 410 days to complete. The building was opened on 1 May 1931 by remote control, when President Herbert Hoover pressed a button in Washington DC. For more than 40 years, the Empire State held the record as the world's tallest office or apartment building, until the twin towers of the World Trade Center were completed. since their destruction in 2001, it is once again New York's tallest.
    New York
  • The Empire State Building towers 381m above ground and measures 443.2m to the top of the TV tower.
  • The Workforce - 3,400 at its peak- took a total of seven million man-hours to complete the Empire State Building.
  • The cost was $40,948,900 including the land (the building cost only $24,718,000).
  • The building's weight is 331,122 tonnes. This includes a 54,431 tonne steel frame, 10 million bricks faces in limestone and 662 tonnes of aluminium and stainless steel.
  • The Empire State is served by 73 lifts and contains 3,194,547 light bulbs, 80km of radiator pipes and 113km of water pipes.
  • The lightning conductor was struck 68 times in the building's first ten years.
  • In 2003 Australian runner Paul Crake broke his own record for racing up the 1575 steps to the 86th floor in 9 minutes 33 seconds.
  • The building's coloured lights are changed for seasonal celebrations. They are red, white and blue on Independence Day and green on St. Patrick's Day. The lights are turned off when birds are migrating to avoid confusing them.
  • On St. Valentine's Day, couples can marry on the 80th floor.
  • On 28 July 1945, a B-25 bomber crashed n fog between the building's 78th and 79th floors, killing the pilot and 13 other people. It happened on a Saturday so most offices were empty, or the casualties would have been higher.
  • On a clear day you can see 129km from the 102nd floor.
  • In September 2011, the building received a gold rating for Leadership in energy and Environmental Design (LEED) and is the tallest LEED certified building in the USA.
No comments | Wednesday, January 02, 2013
Spiders are not insects. They belong to a separate group called Arachnids, which also includes Scorpions. A spider's body is divided into two parts linked by a narrow waist. It has four pairs of legs tipped with claws, but no spiders have wings. All spiders can make silk but not all spin webs. There are at least 35,000 species of spider. Most are harmless but a few can be deadly. The banana spider of Central and South America produces 6mg of venom, enough to kill six adults. Other deadly spiders   are the funnel-web, which lives in Australia, and the wolf spider of Central and South America. The black widow and various tarantulas are also very dangerous and can kill. 

Biggest Spider:-

The Goliath bird-eating spider, which lives in South American rainforests, has legs up to 25cm long. 

Smallest Spider:-

A species called Patu marplesi from Western Samoa is the smallest known spider. It measures only 0.46mm long.

Amazing Insects:
Most abundant -
  • Insects called springtails live in topsoil all over the world. There are probably as many as 600 million per hectare. Together they weigh more than the entire human race.
  • There can be up to five billion aphids per hectare in a swarm.
  • A swarm of desert locusts may contain 50 billion insects. One seen in 1889 was reckoned to have 250 billion locusts weighing a total of half a million tonnes.
Stick insects have the longest bodies. Some measures up to 51cm long, including their legs.

Goliath beetles can be 11cm long and weigh 100g.

The wings of battledore wing fairy flies, a kind of parasitic wasp, measure only 0.21mm.

The Longest lived-
Jewel beetle larvae, or young, may live in timber for 30 years or more before becoming adult insects.

The shortest lived-
Male house flies live about 17 days and females about 29 days. Mayflies may live for a single day as adults, but for two or three years as larvae.

Colonies of hundreds of male cicadas make loud noises to attract females. These sounds are as noisy as heavy traffic.

Dragonflies can fly at speeds of 28-32km/h.

Long distance fliers-
Butterflies have been tracked travelling 4,828km.

Insect dishes:
In many countries insects are popular food. Insect dishes include omelette made from silkworms and fried honey bees in China, fried locusts in Thailand and red ant chutney in India. Many of us may eat insects without realizing it- the red food coloring called cochineal is made from the dried bodies of a Mexican cactus eating scale insect.

Bee facts:
Out of 20,000 different types of bee the best known is the honeybee, but not all bees live in colonies like the honey bee. Many live alone and build their own nests.
  • The Brazilian Trigona duckei is the smallest bee at 2-5mm long.
  • Wings of honeybee's beat 11,400 times a minute. These wing movements make the bees familiar buzz.
  • Some people are allergic to bee stings, which can even be fatal. In 1962 in Rhodesia, Johanne Relleke was stung 2,243 times by wild bees, but Johanne survived.
  • Honeybees visit up to five million flowers to make one kilo of honey. They fly total distance equal to flying four times around the Earth.
  • One beehive may contain 50,000 worker bees, these are the bees which collect nectar from flowers to  make honey.
  • Wallace's giant bees are the world's largest at up to 4cm long. They were first found in Indonesia in 1858 but were then thought to have become extinct. In 1981 the bees were discovered.
  • Queen bees can lay two or three thousand eggs a day, as many as two lakh eggs a year. They may live as long as five years, so can produce a million eggs.