No comments | Thursday, February 14, 2013
Marathon, Greece, September 490 BC
The Athenians defeated an invading Persian army during the Battle of Marathon.

Hastings, England, 14 October 1066
In the last successful invasion of England, the Norman and French army under William, Duke of Normandy, defeated the Saxons under King Harold. Harold was killed and William, who became known as William the Conqueror was crowned King of England.

Crecy, France, 26 August 1346
During the Hundred Years War, 9,000 English soldiers under Edward III defeated a French army of 30,000 under the command of King Philip IV of France.

Agincourt, France, 25 October 1415
Despite being heavily outnumbered (5,700 against 25,000) the English army under King Henry V defeated the French decisively. This gained them control of much of France.

Naseby, England, 14 June 1645
In the English Civil War Oliver Cromwell's New Model Army defeated the Royalist army of King Charles I. The king was later taken prisoner and executed.

Yorktown, America, 6-19 October 1781
In the American War of Independence, the British were forced to surrender by the American army. The Americans were led by General George Washington, later the first president of the USA.

Waterloo, Belgium, 18 June 1815
During the Napoleonic Wars the Emperor Napoleon's army fought against the British and allies under the Duke of Wellington. Britain and the allies won and Napoleon was sent into exile.

Gettysburg, USA, 1-3 July 1863
During this important American Civil War battle the  Union Army defeated the Confederate (Southern) army under General Robert E. Lee.

Somme, France, 1 July-18 November 1916
During the World War I the British army under General Sir Douglas Haig attempted to end the stalemate of trench warfare against the German army. This led to the first two battles of the Somme river. Neither side gained any advantage and both suffered massive casualties.

El Alamein, Egypt, 1-27 July and 23 October-4 November 1942
These two World War II battles were fought in the desert when the British 8th Army under Lieutenenat-General Bernard Montgomery eventually crushed the German and Italian armies under field Marshal Erwin Rommel.

Stalingrad, USSR, 19 August 1942-2 February 1943
During World War II the German 6th Army was surrounded by the Soviet army in Stalingrad (now Volgograd) and suffered huge casualties in an extended siege.

Desert Shield/Storm/Sabre, Iraq/Kuwait, 16 January-27 February 1991
These Gulf War campaigns were a response to Iraq's invasion of Kuwait. Coalition forces led by the USA drove the Iraqis out through a combination of air and land attack.

Major Wars:

War Date Principal combatants
Peloponnesian War 431-404 BC Sparta V Athens
Punic Wars 264-146 BC Rome v Carthage
Crusades 1095-1291 Christians v Muslims
Hundred Years War 1337-1543 England V France
Wars of the Roses 1455-85 York v Lancaster
Thirty Years Wars 1618-48 Catholic v Protestant forces in Europe
English Civil War 1642-51 Crown v Parliament
War of the Spanish Succession 1701-14 France v Grand Alliance (of other European countries)
War of the Austrian Succession 1740-48 France, Spain, Bavaria, Savoy, Netherlands, Prussia v Britain
Seven Years War 1756-63 Austria, Russia, France, Portugal, Sweden, Britain,  Poland v Prussia 
American War of Independence 1775-83 America V Britain
Napoleonic Wars 1792-1815 Britain, Austria, Russia, Sweden, Naples v France
War of 1812 1812-15 USA v Britain
Mexico-American War 1846-48 Mexico v USA
Crimean War 1853-56 Russia v Turkey, Britian, France, Sardinia
American Civil War 1861-65 North v Confederate (Southern) states
Franco-Prussian War 1870-71 France v Germany
Chinese-Japanese War 1894-95 China v Japan
Spanish-American War 1898 Spain v USA
Boer War 1899-1902 Boers (South Africa) v Britain
Russo-Japanese War 1904-05 Russia v Japan
World War I 1914-18 Allies v Germany and others
Chinese-Japanese War 1931-33 China v Japan
Spanish Civil War 1936-39 Nationalists v Republicans
Chinese Japanese War 1937-45 China v Japan
World War II 1939-45 Allies v Germany and others (Axis powers)
Korean War 1950-53 North Korea (with Chinese aid) v South Korea (supported by USA)
Vietnam War 1957-75 North Veitnam v South Vietnam (with US aid)
Falklands War 1982 Britain v Argentina
Gulf War 1991 Allied forces v Iraq
'War on Terror' 2001- USA and allies v al-Qaeda (Taliban in Afghanistan)
Iraq War 2003 USA and allies v Iraq

Youngest medal winners:
US-
William Johnston was a drummer who won the Congressional Medal of Honor (America's highest military award) when he was 12. The award was for bravery in action during the Seventh Day Battle and Peninsular Campaign on 1862.
UK-
Andrew Fitzgibbon, an Irish hospital apprentice was awarded Britain's highest military honor, the Victoria Cross when he was only 15. He won the medal for bravery during the action on 21 August 1860 at the Taku Forts (China).

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