1 comment | Saturday, March 30, 2013
Chatwal Wedding: Cost 100 crore approx.
Hotelier Vikram Chatwal's wedding to model Priya Sachdev happened in 2006. The week long Chatwal wedding festivities happened across the 3 Indian cities Delhi, Mumbai and Udaipur. The wedding is attended by the 600 guests from 26 countries and were flown in on personal leased jets. The wedding value approximately to a few one hundred large integer. Candles, Flowers, personal jets, the foremost costly decorations and position invitees were a number of the highlights of the lavish wedding.

Mittal Wedding: Cost Rs.220 crore
Steel business leader Lakshmi Mittal's daughter Vanisha Mittal's wedding to Amit Bhaita came about in France in 2004. International pop star Kylie Minogue was also present at the marriage. Bollywood eminent stars like Sharukh Khan, Aishwarya Rai, Juhi Chawla, Saif Ali Khan, Rani Mukherjee, Akshay Kumar all performed at the marriage. The dance sequences were choreographed by Farah Khan. Munna Maharaj, the famous cook UN agency was accountable of the job at Kumar Mangalam Birla's wedding catered for the marriage. The cruisine was entirely Indian vegetarian delicacies. The wedding celebrations went on till six days. The bride wore an Abu Jani and Sandeep Khosla creation. The wedding costed Rs.220 crore approximately.

Tanwar Wedding: Cost Rs.250 crore approx.
Congress Minister Kanwar Singh Tanwar's son, Lalit's wedding to Yodita Jaunapuria took place in Delhi in 2011. Lalit received a Bell 429 helicopter as a present from his in-laws. A whooping 21 large crore was spent only on the tikka ceremony for the groom's family. The guest list enclosed regarding 15000 individuals every of whom reportedly received 11,000 rupees as shagun and people who attended the lagan function got a 30gm silver biscuit, rupee 2100 cash each and a safari suit. The Indian Prime Minsiter and King of Bollywood Sharukh Khan and every one high notch politician attended the marriage functions. This was a status political wedding. The total amount was spent was approximately 250 crore.

Sahara wedding: Cost 552 crore approx.
The marriage of Subrata Roy's sons, Sushanto with Richa and Seemanto with Chandni took place in 2004 in Lucknow. Sahara chief made sure that there was no dearth of glitz, style and glamour in the weddings. The marriage venue in Lucknow, Sahara Shaher dazzled with torchlights, marshals, prim glasses and lamps. The sangeet function took place at the Hotel Clarks in Awadh. The marriage avenue was the magnificent Sahara auditorium while the entire pre-wedding functions were celebrated at the grand residence of the Sahara's. Well known and high profile Indians such as Mulayam Singh Yadav, Anil Ambani, Amitabh Bachchan and Aishwarya Rai were present to welcome the wedding guests. The wedding was attended by the who's who of the country. Even the Shiv Sena chief, late Shri Bal Thackeray was present at the event. On the auspicious occasion of the wedding of both his sons, Subrata Roy got 101 under privileged girls married. Along with this, food was distributed to close to about one and a half lakh beggars. The Wedding cuisine included about a 101 different cuisines from all over the world. Other attractions were the dance performances by Shiamak Davar group and performances by a British Symphony Orchestra who played popular Indian tunes. The seven vows of Indian marriages were inscribed on the pillars of the gateway. The wedding cost was approximately 552 crore.



No comments | Wednesday, March 27, 2013
Great religious buildings:
The world's major religions including, Islam, Buddhism, Hinduism, Sikhism and Christianity have inspired many of the world's greatest buildings. Some are shrines to the religions's founders. Others are places of pilgrimage. Several are among the world's largest structures.

Tallest churches, Church/location Height(m)   Year completed
Chicago Methodist Temple, Chicago, USA     173         1924
Ulm Cathedral, Ulm, Germany     161         1890
Notre Dame de la Paix, Yomoussoukro,
Cote d'lvoire
    158         1989
Cologne Cathedral, Cologne, Germany     156         1880
 Rouen Cathedral, Rouen, France     148         1876   
  • The UK's tallest church is Salisbury Cathedral, built in 1930. Its spire measures 123m. The height to the top of the dome of St Paul's Cathedral, London (completed in 1710) is 112m.
  • Spanish architect Antonio Gaudi's Sagrada Familia Cathedral in Barcelona, Spain was begun in 1883, but is not yet completed. Its tallest spires are planned to reach 170m. 
Tallest mosques-
The Great Hassan II Mosque, Casablanca, Morocco (1993) is the tallest mosque at 210m. The Saddam Mosque, Baghdad, Iraq was designed to be the largest in the Middle East, with a record-breaking 280m minaret, but it has not been completed.

Largest Buddhist temple-
The Largest Buddhist temple in the world is Borobudur, near Yogyakarta, Java, Indonesia. It was built between AD 750 and 842. The temple covers 60,000sq m and contains 56,634cu m of stone.

Largest Hindu temple-
Angkor Wat, Cambodia, built between 879 and 1191 is the largest religious structure in the world. The complex of buildings inside it walls and moat covers 83,110sq m .

Largest mosque-
The Masjid al Haram is the holy mosque of Makkah, the birthplace of the prophet Muhammad. Millions of Muslim pilgrims visit the mosque every year. The mosque covers82,000sq m and the surrounding yards cover another 985,000 sq m. Together they can hold up to 1.2 million devotees.

Largest churches-
Salt Late Temple, Utah, USA (1983) has a floor area of 23,506sq m. It was the largest Christian cathedral in the world until 1989 when it was overtaken by the 30,000sq m basilica in Yamoussoukro, Cote d'lvoire. St Peter's in the Vatican (1612) the centre of the Roman Catholic Church, covers an area of 23,000sq m. and is 218.7m long.

Largest synagogue-
The world's largest synagogue is Temple Emanu-El, New york City, USA. It occupies an area of 3,523sq m and opened in 1929.

Lighthouses:
Tallest in the world-
lighthouseThe biggest lighthouse ever built wa the Pharos of Alexandria, which stood 124m tall. It was one of the Seven wonders of the world. The world's tallest lighhouse today is in Yamashita Park, Yokohama, Japan and is 106m tall.

Tallest in the US-
The Cape Hatteras lighthouse in North Carolina was built in 1870. It is the tallest in the USA at 59.7m. The lighthouse was being eroded by the sea so between 1999 and 2000 the entire 2,540 tonne building was moved 884m inland, very slowly on tracks.

Tallest in the UK-
The Bishop Rock lighthouse off the Scilly Isles, built in 1858 is 49m tall and has a helipad on top. The equally tall Eddystone lighthouse, off Plymouth, was originally made of wood. The one there now is the fifth on the site and was opened in 1882.
No comments | Saturday, March 16, 2013
Cat-alogue:
First known named cat-
The first cat recorded having a name was called Nedjem, meaning star. It lived in the region of Egyptian Pharaoh Thutmose III (1479-1425 BC).

Heaviest-

Himmyweighed 21.3kg owned by Thomas Vyse of Queensland, Australia. He had a 38.1cm neck and a 84cm waist- similar to that of an adult human. In 1986, he died at the age of ten.

Oldest-

There are several contenders for this title. Most reliable is French-born Grandpa Rex's Allen, a Sphynx cat owned by Jake Perry of Austin, Texas (USA). In 1998 the cat died at the age of 34.

Largest litter-

In 1970, Valerie Gane of Kingham, Oxfordshire owned Tarawood Antigone, a female Burmese who gave birth to 19 kittens. Fifteen survived.

Smallest-

Tinker Toy, a male Blue Point Himalayanis 7 cm tall, 19cm long and weighs 625g owned by Katrina and Scott Forbes of Illinois, USA

Biggest breed-

Maine Coons are a North American breed of muscular, big boned cats. Males often reach 6-8kg in weight.

Best mouser-

Dog
Towser, a female tortoiseshell owned by Glenturret Distillery, Tayside, caught an estimated total of 28,899 mice during her time there. She died in 1987, aged 24.

Dog-alogue:

Smallest dog-
In the 1940s a Yorkshire terrier owned by Arthur Marples of Blackburn was weighed 113g and just 6.3cm tall.

Greatest climber-

Tschingel, a female beagle, climbed more than 50 mountains in the Alps including the Eiger  (3,974m) and Jungrau (4,165m).

Longest jump-

Bang, a greyhound jumped 9.14m while chasing a hare at Brecon Lodge in Gloucestershire.

Largest dog-

In 1989 Aicama Zorba of La-Susa an Old English mastiff owned by Chris Eraclides of London, measured 2.5m from nose to tail and weighed 155.58kg 

Oldest dog-

In 1938, Bluey, an Australian cattle dog owned by Les Hall of Victoria, Australia died at the age of 29 years 5 months.

Largest litter-

Lena, an American foxhound produced 23 puppies in 1944, all of which survived. There are other dogs who have equalled this record but not all the pups have survived.

The fastest dogs-
Breed Maximum recorded
speed (km/h)
Greyhound         67.14
Saluki         64+
Lbizan hound         60.8-64
Whippet         54.42
Sloughi         57.6


Most intelligent dogs:
American psychology professor and pet trainer Stanley Coren ranked 133 breeds of dogs for intelligence. Stanley studied their responses to a range of IQ tests, as well as the opinions of judges in dog obedience tests. The five top breeds were the Border collie, Poodle, German shephard (Alastian), Golden retriever and Doberman pinscher.
No comments | Tuesday, March 05, 2013
Energy sources of world:
A century ago, few homes had electricity and cars were a rare sight. Today, much of the world's energy is turned into electricity for homes to power equipment in factories and to fuel our cars, buses, aircrafts and other transport. These are some of the main sources of this energy.

Oil-

Energy sourceThe first  oil wells were drilled less than 150 years ago but oil, and petroleum which comes from it, has become the most important energy source. Almost 40 percent of the world's energy supply comes from oil. Most oil is found in the Middle East and has to be taken by tankers or pipelines to places where it is used around the world.

Hydropower-

Flowing water has been used as a power source since the Middle Ages and water mills were once a common sight. Modern hydropower uses water flowing through turbines in dams to produce electricity.

Solar energy-

The Sun's warmth can be stored to produce energy. In ancient times, glass and mirror were utilized to collect heat, but the first houses to use solar heating didn't construct until 1955. Solar energy is becoming more famous and the technology is improving all the time. The world's largest solar energy generating plants are in the Mohave Desert, California (USA). They are designed to use the Sun's rays to heat oil which drives a generator. It creates enough electricity for a small town.

Coal- 

Coal is the world's second most important source of energy. It makes up about 27 percent of the total. Coal is a fossil fuel and is made from plants that lived and died in swamps 300 million years ago. The world's coal reserves will last about another 192 years. This is nearly three times as long as gas (67 years) and almost five times as long as oil (41 years).

Natural gas-

The third main source of power comes from gas that occurs naturally beneath the Earth's surface. It accounts  for 23 percent of the world total. The gas is mainly methane, with some ethane, propane and other gases. It it collected and taken to where it is needed by pipelines and has replaced the highly polluting coal gas that used to be made by burning coal.

Nuclear power-

The fourth most important power source about 7% of the world total is nuclear power. A nuclear reaction releases huge amounts of heat which in turn heats water or other liquid and drives a turbine to produce electricity. The first nuclear power station to produce electricity for public use was Calder Hall, UK which opened in 1956.

Tidal energy-

Using waves and marine currents to release energy is expensive and as yet small-scale. The first and largest tidal power station on the Rance river, St Malo, France, was completed in 1967. 120,000 households got power every year from this power station which produce enough energy.

Wind energy-

In the 7th century windmills were used in Persia (now Iran) and in Europe since the 12th century, but they first used for making electricity in the late 19th century. Today, world's leading area for wind-generated electricity is California, (USA). Tehachapi Wind Resource (California) creates as much wind energy as the rest of the USA added. 

How much energy?:
All electrical appliances use energy. The amount depends on their size and purpose: an electric heater might use ten times as much energy as a single light bulb. The energy an appliance uses is measured in watts. These are named in honour of Scottish engineer James Watt (1736-1819) who first worked out how to measure energy.

Appliance Watts
Air Conditioner   2500-3000
Central heating pump   800
Computer   400
Deep freeze   1000-2000
Dishwasher   2000-2500
Electric kettle   2200-3000
Electric razor   6
Fan   50-100
Fluorescent light   60
Food mixer   4500
Hair dryer   1000-1500
Iron   1000-1500
Light bulb   100
Microwave oven   1500
Photocopier   1500
Printer   350
Radio, CD player   40-200
Refrigerator   1000
Sewing machine   100
Toaster   750-1500
TV (colour)   250
Vacuum cleaner   800-1400
Washing machine   3000-4000
No comments | Monday, March 04, 2013
Astronomy
14 Famous astronomers:
John Couch Adams (1819-92, Britain) studied the Leonid meteor shower and predicted the existence of Neptune, which was discovered in 1846.

Edward Emerson Barnard (1857-1923, USA) discovered Barnard's Star and Amalthea, a moon of Jupiter.


Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543, Poland) showed that the Sun was at the center of the Solar System.


Galileo Galilei (1564-1642, Italy) was a mathematician who made important discoveries concerning motion and gravity. Galileo built some of the first telescopes used in astronomy and used them to discover many previously unknown space objects.


George Ellery Hale (1868-1938, USA) pioneered the astronomical study of the Sun and founded observatories, one with major telescopes named after him.


Edmond Halley (1656-1742, Britain) predicted the orbits of comets, including the one that bears his name.


William Herschel (1738-1822, Germany) built huge telescopes, compiled catalogues of stars and discovered  moons of Saturn and Uranus.


Edwin Hubble (1889-1953, USA)  Hubble space Telescope was named in his honour. Edwin made important discoveries about galaxies. 


Christiaan Huygens (1629-95, Holland) discovered Saturn's rings and devised the wave theory of light.


Percival Lowell (1855-1916, USA) was a founder of the Lowell Observatory, Arizona. Lowell predicted that a planet would be found in the region where Pluto was later discovered.


Charles Messier (1730-1817, France) studied comets and eclipses, but he is best known for his catalogue of stars.


Isaac Newton (1643-1727, Britain) is considered one of the greatest of all astronomers. His theories of gravity and the motions of planets revolutionized the subject.


Heinrich Olbers (1758-1840, Germany) discovered asteroids and comets, one of which was named after him.


Giuseppe Piazza (1746-1826, Italy) compiled star catalogues and discovered the first asteroid, Ceres, in 1801.


Astronomy milestones:

Astronomy is the scientific study of the universe and the bodies it contains (excluding Earth). Astronomers are the scientists who study astronomy.

Year Milestone
585 BC First prediction of eclipse of the sun
130 BC Hipparchus calculates distance and size of the Moon
AD 1543 Copernicus shows that the Sun is at the center of the Solar System
1609 Planetary motion Law described by Johannes Kepler
1610 Galileo dicovered Moons of Jupiter
1655 Titan, Moon of Saturn discovered by Christiaan Huygens 
1668 First reflecting Telescope builds by Isaac Newton
1687 Isaac Newton publishes theories of the motions of planets, etc.
1705 Edmond Halley predicts return of the comet
1671-84 Four moons of Saturn discovered by Giovanni Cassini
1774 Charles Messier compiles a star catalogue
1781 Uranus the 7th planet, discovered by William Herschel
1801 The first asteroid, Ceres, discovered by Giuseppe Piazzi
1846 Neptune, 8th planet discovered by Johann Galle and Urbain Le Varrier
1787-89 Herschel finds Two moons of Saturn and two of Uranus 
1839-40 First photographs of the Moon
1894 Flagstaff Observatory, Arizona, founded
1905 Einstein's Special Theory of Relativity 1st considered
1908 Giant and dwarf stars described
1923 Galaxies beyond the Milky Way proved
1927 Big Bang theory first proposed
1930 Pluto, the 9th planet discovered by Clyde Tombaugh
1959 First photographs by soviet satellite Luna 3of the far side of the Moon
1961 First quasars discovered
1967 First pulsars identified
1971 Black hole first detected
1973 Skylab space laboratory launched
1976 Rings of Uranus are discovered
1977 Voyager deep space probes are launched
1971 Mariner 9 spacecraft maps Mars
1980 Voyager 1 explores Saturn
1978 Space probes Pioneer I and II reach Venus
1985-89 Voyager 2 discovers the moons of Uranus and Neptune
1994 Comet shoemaker-Levy noticed crashing into Jupiter
1995 Galileo probe reaches Jupiter
1997 Mars Pathfinder lands
1997 Cassini probe launched to Saturn
1998 Begins the construction of International Space Station
1999 Chandra X-Ray Observatory launched
2003 Galileo probe independently crash landed on Jupiter
2006 New Horizons space probe sent to Pluto
No comments | Sunday, March 03, 2013
Asteroid facts:
Solar system exploration
Asteroids are sometimes called minor planets. Asteroid are lumps of rock orbiting the sun, largely in the asteroid belt between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter.
  • The fourth asteroid to be discovered in 1807 is Vesta, It is the only one bright enough to be seen without a telescope.
  • The Ceres is the first and largest asteroid, It is 936 km in diameter and was found on New Year's Day 1801. Since then thousands have been found. Twelve of them are more than 250km wide and 26 are larger than 200km diameter. As telescopes have improved, more and more small asteroids have been detected. There are probably about 100,000 asteroids larger than 1km in diameter. Some experts think there may be as several as 1.2 million.
  • Toutatis was discovered in 1989. It's named after the Celtic god Toutatis, whose alias is used as an oath by the comic strip character Asterix the Gaul. Toutatis dimensions (4.6 by 2.4 by 1.9km). It passes Earth every 4 years and is one amongst the most important space objects to come close to us. On 9 November 2008 Toutatis came within 7,524,773km of Earth. 
  • Astronomers believe that on average, 1 asteroid larger than 0.4km strikes Earth every 50,000 years. Some 65 million years ago a 10km diameter asteroid crashing to Earth may have been responsible for wiping out the dinosaurs. This would have caused a catastrophic blast, affecting the chemical composition of the atmosphere, the climate and destroying the plants and animals on which the dinosaurs fed. As recently as 1991 a small asteroid came innards 170,600km of Earth, the closest recorded near miss. An asteroid is predicted to pass as close as 119,678km on 30 Jan 2052.
Halley's comet:
British astronomer Edmond Halley (1656-1742) was the first to prove that comets travel in orbits, which making it possible to calculate when they will next be seen from Earth. Halley predicted that the comet he saw in 1682 would return in 1759. It did return and was named in his honor. The regular 76-year orbit of Halley's comet means that we can find historical accounts of its appearances going back more than two-thousand years. They were often believed to foretell important events.


Date closest to sun Observations
25 May 240 BC Seen in China
10 October 12 BC Trusted to mark the death of Roman general Agrippa
28 June AD 451 Trusted to mark the defeat of Attila the Hun
20 March 1066 William believed the comet was a sign of Imminent win 
at the Battle of Hastings over King Harold . The comet and 
battle feature in the Bayeux Tapestry, made some years later.
9 June 1456 The defeat of the Turkish army was thought to 
be linked to the comet by 'Papal forces'.
15 September 1682 Observed by Edmond Halley, who predicted its return
13 March 1759 The comet's first return, as predicted by Halley, justifying
his calculations correct
16 November 1835 The American author Mark Twain was born this year. 
He always believed that his fate was connected to that 
of the comet and in 1910, soon after it reappeared, he died.
10 April 1910 There was panic as many sure the world would come 
to and end.
9 February 1986 The Japanese Suisei probe, Soviet Vega 1 and Vega 2 and the
European Space Agency's Giotto space probes passed close to
Halley's comet. Astronomers concluded that the comet is made
of dust held together by Carbon Dioxide ice water.
28 July 2061 Next due to appear


More than 20 comets return more regularly than Halley. The most frequent visitor is an Encke's comet, which was named after the German astronomer Johann Franz Encke (1791-1865). He calculated the 3.3 year period of its orbit in 1818. The closest a comet has ever come to Earth was more than 500 years ago. On 20 February 1491, the so-called comet of 1491 came within 1,406,220km of Earth.

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